4. 1 PV Module Design, Manufacture, Performance and Reliability
Summary / Abstract:
This work presents the result of a photovoltaic (PV) module round-robin intercomparison between European ISO/IEC 17025 accredited laboratories and non-accredited laboratories which, however, follow IEC standards. The scope of the intercomparision is to compare performance measurements of different PV modules technologies (crystalline silicon and thin-film modules) by means of different sun simulators. We compare Xenon based sun simulators in two different types - tunnel-type and table-like flashers -, and sun simulators based on light emitted diodes (LED) with different numbers of LED channels. Besides the light source type itself the constructions of the systems vary significantly. Starting from commonly laboratory used tunnel-type systems where the light source is several meters away from the module and generate a light beam of mainly direct light. The second type are table-like flashers, often used in manufacturing due to floor space advantages, that use typically an additional diffusor glass plate offer typically mainly stray/diffuse light. Somewhere in the middle are the new LED-based systems where the light source will generate more diffuse light as a tunnel-types system but offers the possibility to have more direct light with a small footprint as well. Furthermore, LEDs offer a simple way to tune and adjust the spectrum but may have gaps in some wavelength regions that can lead to significant mismatches. The participating laboratories with Xenon based sun simulator of different manufacturers are PV Lab Germany GmbH (PV Lab), Fraunhofer-Center for Silicon Photovoltaics (CSP), European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST) at Loughborough University, Underwriters Laboratories (UL), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (HI ERN), Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Wien; Austria, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Württemberg (ZSW). Participant with LED based sun simulator is Anhalt University of Applied Sciences (HSA) - two LED simulators with different numbers of LED channels.