4. 1 PV Module Design, Manufacture, Performance and Reliability
Summary / Abstract:
The perovskite / silicon tandem technology has demonstrated a cell efficiency as high as 29.52%  in the laboratory and is projected to reach a significant market share within this decade . For a successful market entry, this tandem concept does not just need to demonstrate high efficiencies under Standard Testing Conditions (STC: 25°C, 1 kW/m², AM1.5) , but also high energy yields in different climates. The IEC 61853 standard series “Photovoltaic (PV) module performance testing and energy rating” is designed to provide a new standardized measure for real world PV module performance, specifically the Climate Specific Energy Rating (CSER) . However, the standard’s energy yield calculation algorithm does not account for bifacial modules or tandem related effects such as current matching. Moreover, the standard’s energy yield calculation algorithm cannot be used for modules that are still under development due to the lack of experiment module input data.